Task 1: The chart below gives information about the age of women in Australia when they give birth to their first child in 1966, 1986 and 2006
The bar chart details the percentage of Australian women giving birth to their first child in 1966, 1986 and 2006, and the figures are classified according to six different age groups. Overall, it is clear that over the given period, Australian women were more inclined towards bearing their first child during late adulthood, with the percentage of women belonging to the 4 oldest age groups showing upward trends, as opposed to the two youngest groups which present quite an opposite pattern.
In 1966, around 65% of women aged between 20 and 24 gave birth to their first child, making this the most popular age range. The proportions of women belonging to the remaining age groups were noticeably lower, at only 40% (25-30), 37% (19 and under), 15% (30-34), 5% (30-39) and a negligible 2% (40+). Over the next 40 years, the patterns shifted as fewer young women decided to give birth, with the figure for the 19-and-under dropping markedly to 10%, and the 25-to-30 group also followed suit, having its rates decreasing to 35%. In contrast, the percentages of first birth givers aged between 25 and 30 and between 30 to 34 saw increases, amounting to 45%, and 50% respectively. An even more significant upward trend is evident in the 30-to-34 and 34-to-39 age groups when their figures rose at an exponential gradient, with the former rising to 50% and the latter to 30%. Finally, not many women wished to deliver babies at this later age of 40 or more, as the rates first plateaued at 2% in 1986 and marginally grew thereafter to 3% in 2006.
Task 2: Nowadays it is not only large companies that can make films. Digital technology enables anyone to produce films. Do you think it is a positive or negative development?
Unlike many years ago when cinematography is exclusive1 to large companies, films made by individuals using their own devices have enjoyed increasing popularity2 in recent years. I am of the opinion that this is more likely to have positive consequences.
The fact that filmmaking is increasingly more accessible has helped add variety to cinematography3. Movies made by big companies, on the one hand, are restricted to a handful of4 themes and backgrounds, several of which are even heavily censored5. On the other hand, films made by potential filmmakers, albeit amateur, transcend6 barriers7 of ethnicities and backgrounds. Around 400-500 movies are made by Hollywood every year, many of which are Americentric8 and revolve around9 superheroes, romance, thrillers and comedies. Meanwhile, with a phone sitting in our pockets and film editing applications at our disposal, that number can add up to millions, with more themes covered and a great array of10 settings shown.
Additionally, easy access to filming technology helps discover hidden talented people. Thanks to video-sharing platforms such as Youtube or Facebook, several unknown people have attained11 resounding success12 just by one or two short films. In Vietnam, for example, a lot of amateur movie-making teams have become overnight sensations13 by posting short comedies and web dramas onto their sites. Although those films are low-budget, they are well–received14 by the general public, and many aspiring15 actors, actresses, and directors are discovered and eventually shot to fame16. The Sundance Film Festival, once a low-profile17 venue for small-budget creators, has become a media extravaganza18 for new talents now that more and more independent movie creators are able to make films using their own devices.
Inconclusion, my firm conviction is that the widespread popularity of amateur films thanks to the advent of19 technology is a welcome trend, for it adds spices to the film industry and promotes aspiring individuals wishing to pursue professional film careers.
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- exclusive: độc quyền
- enjoy increasing popularity: càng ngày càng phổ biến
- cinematography: điện ảnh
- a handful of: một lượng ít
- censor: kiểm duyệt
- transcend: vượt qua
- barrier: rào cản
- Americentric: quá nghiêng về văn hóa Mỹ
- revolve around: xoay quanh
- an array of: một sự đa dạng
- attain: đạt được
- resounding success: thành công vang dội
- overnight sensation: từ dùng để miêu tả những người nổi tiếng chỉ trong một thời gian ngắn
- well–received: được đón nhận tốt
- aspiring: có mong muốn
- shot to fame: trở nên nổi tiếng
- low-profile: ít có tiếng
- media extravaganza: sự kiện truyền thông cực kì nổi tiếng
- the advent of: sự ra đời của
Task 1: The diagram below shows how ethanol fuel is produced from corn
The diagram provides a breakdown of how ethanol is produced from corn. From an overall perspective, it is readily apparent that the making of maize-based ethanol includes corn undergoing various physical and biological processes under different conditions, the product of which is later stored and eventually delivered to gas stations.
The process commences when corn is harvested and stored in warehouses, before being ground by the use of a turbine-driven mill. Thereafter the ground corn, with the addition of an unspecified amount of water, is cooked within 4 hours in a cylindrical device before being fermented in another set of cylinders. The mixture is left for fermentation for 2 days (48 hours) and subsequently liquidised, with solid wastes being released as by-products. The liquidized substance, now called ethanol, is further purified under laboratory conditions for another 5 hours, after which it is stored in large containers and eventually transported to gas stations.
Task 2: Some people think that mental strength is the most important factor for success in sports. However, some others believe that it is more important to have strong and fit people. Discuss both views and give your opinions.
Some people are of the opinion that physical fitness1 is the key to success in sports. However, some others are opposed to this idea, claiming that mental toughness2 is of uttermost importance3. From my perspective, both qualities are of great significance in equal measure4, and I will further elaborate in this essay.
Physical strength has been commonly regarded as an important element in sports. Most sportspeople5 are required to be physically fit6 so that they are able to perform physically challenging actions commonly found in the majority of sports. Footballers, for example, spend on average 90 minutes of relentless physical manoeuvres7, and this certainly requires brute strength and stamina8. In some sports that involve building muscles such as weightlifting, fitness is instrumental in9 the overall success of a weightlifter, for more weights lifted are directly proportionate to10 how well he or she performs in a weightlifting competition.
A strong mentality, on the other hand, is also very essential for any professionals to be successful. As a matter of fact, virtually all sports entail11 intense competitions and pressure, and only strong-willed12 players who are able to handle those problems well attain great success. Elite athletes13 such as Roger Federer or Cristiano Ronaldo, for example, are perfect examples of players who remain calm and confident regardless of situations. Additionally, mental prowess14 has been proven to be a game-changing15 factor in deciding the outcome of a match. Even seeded players16 can bitterly lose to underdogs17 if stressed or pressured.
In conclusion, my firm conviction is that mental toughness is just as important as physical fitness in determining sporting success. In the future, with training integrating18 both physical and mental health becoming increasingly available, the sporting industry will be able to welcome generations of successful sports players who are physically fit and mentally prepared.
- physical fitness: sự khỏe mạnh về mặt thể chất
- mental toughness: sự dẻo dai về mặt tâm lý
- uttermost importance: cực kì quan trọng; quan trọng hàng đầu
- in equal measure: quan trọng như nhau
- sportspeople: người chơi thể thao
- physically fit: có thể chất tốt
- physical manoeuver: sự vận động thể chất
- brute strength and stamina: sức mạnh và sức chịu đựng khủng khiếp
- instrumental in: cực kì quan trọng và cần thiết trong việc gì đó
- proportionate to: tỉ lệ thuận
- entail: bao gồm, chứa đựng
- strong-willed: có ý chí tốt
- elite athletes: vận động viên xuất sắc
- mental prowess: khả năng xuât chúng về mặt tinh thần
- game-changing: quan trọng, có khả năng quyê1t định kết quả
- seeded player: vận động viên hạt giống
- underdog: người yếu thế hơn
- integrate: tích hợp